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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

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remained in their camps, the majority of them still behind barbed
wire under guards.
The last act of the Russian scheme to break Poland was staged in two
parts :—The  first was  the  challenge thrown  down  by Moscow to
the Allies—the destruction of part of the Polish Government (whom they
had kidnapped from Poland) by means of a trial staged by them. Secondly,
the Kremlin's resolution to form a pro-Russian Polish Government by
adding a few   collaborationists of the Quisling type to their already
existing  Lublin Committee  and forcing  the Allied  Governments to
recognise this body.    Moscow's political trials have become famous—at
them were undertaken the liquidation of old friends or rivals, all opposit-
ion and foreigners who were working in the U.S.S.R.     The accused
were normally charged with State treason, sabotage and espionage.
The first of such trials in Moscow took place in 1933, when the Socialist
Revolutionaries found themselves in dock as the rivals of the Bolsheviks.
This trial, however, did maintain some semblance at any rate, to a court
normal to Western Europe.    Liebknecht and Vanderveld attended, in
the capacity of barristers, but resigned during its course stating they had
no possibility of defending the accused.     The eminent German Social
Democrat, Karl Kautsky, commented :—
" This new Russian despotism^ not of the Tsarists but of Bonaparte's,
wishes to make the socialists of the whole world partners to its policy of
persecution . . . The desire of the Bolsheviks is that the socialists of the
whole world support the persecution of the Socialist Revolutionists and the
Miensheviks which they have started. The Bolsheviks wish to present
their policy as the most literal application of marxism, as the truthful
execution of the principles of class warfare. But it is impossible to agree
with these principles, resulting only in the barbarian persecutions and
oppression which the Bolsheviks are applying to those workers who are
considering socialism from another point of view. The Moscow trial
is a desperate attempt on the part of the Bolsheviks to humiliate in the eyes
of the world their most dangerous of opponents by presenting them as the
partners of a counter-revolutionary movement ..."
The trials in Soviet Russia differed from any other in the world, even
from the German Justizmurder, in that, the accused adopted a suicidal
attitude, heaping charges upon charges against themselves, acting as the
most ruthless of prosecutors, confessing to every crime they could possibly
invent. For instance, at the so-called Trotskyites3 trial, the former
friends of Lenin, Zinoviev, Piatakov, Bukharin and the rest, confessed
that they were the agents of the Capitalists, Fascists, Hitlerites and so on.
This extraordinary behaviour on the part of the accused was explained by
the World Press in a manner far from flattering to Soviet judicature.
There were reports of the special treatment accorded to the arrested men.
But in the majority of cases the desired results were apparently obtained by
a far more simple method. It came as the direct outcome of the Soviet's
practice of holding the family of the accused responsible for his activities.
The prisoners who faced Vyshynsky or any other prosecutor^ at these